There is an excellent video on the walls of Constantinople, explaining how and why the walls were built. It includes reconstructions of what the walls would have looked like and how they were a defense of the city. This Walking the Walls post now has the video posted. Take a look at the post to see what the walls look like today, then to the bottom of the post to see the video.
Little Hagia Sophia. This church was formerly the Church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus.
The church of Saints Sergius and Baccchus marks the first of the city’s harbors on the Marmara Sea.
No interior decoration remains. Notice how the orentation of worship changed. When it was a church the priest and people faced the east, that is, ad orientem when they prayed; the altar is the center of the apse. However Muslims pray facing Mecca so the prayer niche faces Mecca and is to the right.
A mosaic from the walls of the Chora church in Istanbul.
Hagia Irene is the oldest church in Istanbul. Emperor Constantine dedicated it to the Holy Peace of God in the 4th century.
The first Council of Constantinople was held here where the third part of the creed professing the faith in the divinity of the Holy Spirit was proclaimed.
The words of the creed: I believe in the Holy Spirit. …..continued to be present to my mind as I reconstructed the lively debate that these walls witnessed in hammering out the orthodox doctrine of the Catholic faith.
At the time of the conquest in 1453 Mehmet turned it into an armoury.
“In Byzantine art, and later Eastern Orthodox art generally, the Deësis or Deisis (Greek: δέησις, “prayer” or “supplication”), is a traditional iconic representation of Christ in Majesty or Christ Pantocrator: enthroned, carrying a book, and flanked by the Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist, and sometimes other saints and angels. Mary and John, and any other figures, are shown facing towards Christ with their hands raised in supplication on behalf of humanity.”
Read the rest, from Wikipedia on “Deesis.”
The mosaics of Emperor Joannes I Comnenos and Empress Irene and Alexius II. The Emperor is holding a purse in his hand as a symbol of an imperial donation to the church. The Empress is holding a scroll in her hand with the inscription Pious Augusta Irene.
The Milion stone. This stone is the remnant of a road marker, originally constructed to have a door facing four sides and a dome embedded on four sides.
This used to be the starting point of all roads reaching Constantinople.
The signs say:
1377 KM (to) Rome
2040 KM (to) Tehran
2502 KM (to) London
DCCXXIII Miles (to) Babylon. This is 723 “miles” (Roman miles) or 665 statute miles, or 1070 KM.
On reading the last two posts on the fall of Hagia Sophia, a reader writes:
“So interesting to see the things for real, that is, photographed here and now by someone I know. History books can get awfully abstract, but when you see something photographed it becomes very easy to picture the events. In fact, seeing a photograph you almost can’t not picture the events. With the photographs of the walls, you can imagine mounted riders coming up to them, or scaffolding being built, or picking out good places for defenses, etc. In the photograph of the whole interior of Hagia Sophia, you can hear how the sound must echo in the large space, you can feel that the shafts of sunlight must be warm, etc. – the photograph engages the senses and very quickly the imagination. (Thus why you need art in church!)”
The interior space of Hagia Sophia is filled with a golden light, from the sun shining on the mosaics. Four portraits of angels in the dome would have shimmered when the natural light reflected on the dome.
In the spring I spent several days in Constantinople which is known today as Istanbul. On May 28 I walked all the way around the walls to reconstruct the siege of the city in my mind. Then on the following morning I was up at 6 a.m. which is the time when the Muslims poured into the city and panic spread throughout the population. Then at 8 a.m. on May 29, 562 years to the day of the event, I went to Hagia Sophia to remember that morning when the Muslims battered down the Imperial doors to the great church.
I spent the entire morning and early afternoon at Hagia Sophia so acutely aware I was in Constantinople on the anniversary of some eventful days. On May 27 Mehmet ordered the heaviest bombardment of the city. On May 28 the Muslims were given over to prayer, fasting during daylight and ritual ablutions. With candle illumination at night, the city was ringed with fire for the next two nights while the muslims chanted the names of God to beating drums and clashing of cymbals. The people in the city prayed and did penance.
In contrast to the silence, the city was filled with bells, and prayers reached a crescendo the morning of the 28th. Every icon and relic came to Hagia Sophia and there was a procession the full length of the land wall. There were only 4000 soldiers left. In the afternoon at Hagia Sophia. Catholic and Orthodox alike prayed in union and they set aside the 400 year old schism and shared Communion. And the women and children stayed all night in vigil. At nightfall the Muslims broke the fast and massive bombardment began in the night. At midnight the Muslim camp was silent waiting for the order.
Returning from a raid one of the Italians forgot to lock the postern and some of the Ottomans spotted the open door and at 1:30 a.m. on May 29 they burst in, killed the soldiers, took down the flag of Saint Mark and raised the flag of Islam. Within five hours at dawn the Muslim soldiers were beheading the dead and the dying and by 6 a.m. there was indiscriminate killing everywhere.
The faithful fled to Hagia Sophia inspired by the prophecy the avenging angel would drive out the invaders. The bronze doors shut at 8 a.m. They prayed for a miracle. The Janissaries battered down the imperial doors. As I stood at the door today I looked up and saw the mosaic of Jesus which witnessed this. Within an hour the congregation was bound up and led out and then the Muslims hacked the valuables up. The church was left desolate.
Later in the day, Mehmet arrived at the church. He dismounted and poured dust on his head as a sign of humility. Then he called an imam to go up into the pulpit and recite the call to prayer. So early afternoon when I was leaving the church I heard the call to prayer from the outside penetrating the inside and all these thoughts rushed into my mind.
On leaving I went to the ruins of the great palace that was destroyed during the Latin invasion and remembered that Mehmet went to the gallery and surveyed the decay of a once great city that had been wrecked in 1204, and recited this poem:
The spider is curtain bearer in the palace of Chosroes,
The owl sounds the relief in the castle of Afrasiyah…
He achieved his dream, yet already stared over the edge of his own decline. I continued to look up, and imagined the evening of 29 May when the evening sun illuminated the smashed icons and mosaics strewn in pools of dry blood.
“To surrender the city to you is beyond my authority or anyone else’s who lives in it, for all of us, after taking mutual decision, shall die out of free will without sparing our lives.” — Constantine XI Palaiologos
Laments for Constantinople
Byzantine Chant, Lament for the fall of Constantinople
Title: “Ο Θεός ήλθοσαν έθνη” (O God, the heathen are come)
Composer: Manuel Chrysaphes, 1440–1463
In the spring I spent several days in Constantinople which is known today as Istanbul. On May 29th 1453 the great city which stood as a center of Christianity for over a thousand years fell when it was besieged by the Muslims who conquered the city on May 29th 1453. While in Istanbul I read the book Constantinople, The Last Great Siege by Roger Crowley. This reading inspired me to walk the walls on the evening of the 28th and reconstruct the siege in my mind. Then on the following morning I was up at 6 a.m. which is the time when the Muslims poured into the city and panic spread throughout the population. Then at 8 a.m. I went to Hagia Sophia to remember that morning when the Muslims battered down the Imperial doors to the great church. My walking the walls was truly a vigil of remembrance of those final days.
I began the 24-mile walk around the perimeter of ancient Constantinople which fell to the Turkish Muslims on the morning of May 29, 1453. Since my grade school Constantinople has always offered me a fascination especially the walls which were the most important defense system in late antiquity.
The walk began along the the Sea of Marmara where the wall was low because the strong currents made an attack impossible.
Very little remains however in this vicinity right before the junction of the Theodosian land walls and the sea walls was the Gate of the Pomegranate that was close to the important monastery of Stoudious.
Although heavily restored this is the Marble Tower which is the junction of the wall on the Sea of Marmara and the Theodosian wall that extends 5.7 miles to the area of the Palace of the Porphyrogenitus in the Blachernae quarter on the Golden Horn.
To gain access to the Golden Gate is not possible however I took this picture from afar. This was the ceremonial gate that was only opened for the triumphal entry of the emperor although Pope Constantine entered in 710.
There is another legend associated with the gate. When the Muslim Turks entered the city an angel rescued the Emperor who was turned into marble and interred in a cave nearby where he waits to be resuscitated in order to conquer the city back.
On the early morning of May 29 1453 was the decisive breakthrough. The gate had been inadvertently left unlocked. The Muslims entered, raised their flag, opened fire, spread panic and thus led to the fall.
This is looking towards the Golden Horn where the walls of the Blachernae Palace connect with the Theodosian walls which terminate at the palace of Porphyrogenitus. From the the low walls were set back from the Golden Horn. The Blachernae since the 11th century was the residence of the Emperor.
Another plaque commemorating the conquest. The Turkish narrative is that the Byzantines were corrupt and thus God delivered the city into their hands to demonstrate the superiority of Islam over Christianity.
Tomorrow: the fall of Hagia Sophia.
Update: This article links to a very good video explaining how and why the walls were built. It includes reconstructions of what the walls would have looked like and how they were a defense of the city. The video is below.